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Installation on UEFI, via chroot

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Revision as of 15:42, 22 January 2019 by Eayus (talk | contribs) (Fixed repository URLs to the new location. Fixed typo.)
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First steps

To begin, after booting from the Void Live CD, we need to install GPTFDisk to write our partitions:

$ sudo su
# xbps-install gptfdisk

Have a look at the disk we're formatting and installing to, like so:

# lsblk

sda           8:0    0   477G  0 disk

We'll can use fdisk to create and write our GPT partition table:

# fdisk /dev/sda
> g
> w

With our GPT partition table written, we'll can use GPTFDisk's cgdisk utility to write our partitions.

# cgdisk /dev/sda

For each new partition created, you will be prompted for a start sector (for which you can simply press [Enter]), a size (in kibibytes, mebibytes, or gibibytes), and a type (as hex code). Our EFI partition must come first, and should be of type ef00. Swap is 8200, and the rest, 8300.

Sometimes, we might be installing "over" previously used drive, that was partitioned in different style (like MBR). In that case it is often easier to use cfdisk with -z (zero-out) flag that will allow us to combine two previous steps into one:

# cfdisk -z /dev/sda
 ┌ Select label type ───┐
 │ gpt                  │
 │ dos                  │
 │ sgi                  │
 │ sun                  │

By selecting gpt we ensure current scheme is "zapped" and overwritten with proper GPT structures.

What you see below shows separate partitions for /boot, /boot/efi, /, /home, /var and /tmp edited in cgdisk. You might just as well use only three, if you like (for /boot, boot/efi, and /). The sizes are also a matter of discretion; most won't need so much space for /boot, but if you plan on rolling your own kernels, the extra space is necessary.

If you decide to partition differently from this example, you will, of course, need to adjust the mounting instructions listed further on.

Part.     #     Size        Partition Type            Partition Name
1               200.0 MiB   EFI System                EFI
2               550.0 MiB   Linux filesystem          GRUB
3               2.0 GiB     Linux swap                swap
4               2.0 GiB     Linux filesystem          tmp
5               6.0 GiB     Linux filesystem          var
6               12.0 GiB    Linux filesystem          Void
7               454.2 GiB   Linux filesystem          The Big Box

Also notice, that cgdisk is only tool that allows us to assign GPT partition labels (these are very different from filesystem labels) comfortably using TUI interface (fdisk is command oriented and cfdisk is missing this option).

After setting up our partitions, we'll select 'Write', then 'Verify', to check for any errors, and, finally, 'Quit'.

Run lsblk to verify the successful creation of our partitions:

# lsblk

Your list should now look something akin to this:

 sda          8:0    0 238.5G  0 disk
 sda1         8:1    0   200M  0 part
 sda2         8:2    0   550M  0 part
 sda3         8:3    0     2G  0 part
 sda4         8:4    0     2G  0 part
 sda5         8:5    0     6G  0 part
 sda6         8:6    0    12G  0 part
 sda7         8:7    0 454.2G  0 part

Now we need to create the appropriate filesystems on the newly created partitions.

# mkfs.vfat -F32 /dev/sda1
# mkfs.xfs /dev/sda2
# mkfs.xfs /dev/sda4
# mkfs.xfs /dev/sda5
# mkfs.xfs /dev/sda6
# mkfs.xfs /dev/sda7

Activate our swap partition:

# mkswap /dev/sda3

We're now ready to mount the volumes, making any necessary mount point directories along the way (the sequence is important, yes):

# mount /dev/sda6 /mnt
# mkdir /mnt/boot
# mkdir /mnt/tmp
# mkdir /mnt/var

# mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/boot
# mkdir /mnt/boot/efi 

# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/boot/efi
# mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/tmp
# mount /dev/sda5 /mnt/var

Installing Void

Whenever you perform an installation of an architecture different to the one you are running on right now, export XBPS_ARCH accordingly, so that xbps-install fetches the files for the desired arch, see the manpage for details.

example: # export XBPS_ARCH=x86_64-musl

Now, we install Void and GRUB to the mounted filesystem:

  • glibc:
    # xbps-install -S -R http://alpha.de.repo.voidlinux.org/current -r /mnt base-system grub-x86_64-efi
  • musl-libc:
    # export XBPS_ARCH=x86_64-musl && xbps-install -S -R http://alpha.de.repo.voidlinux.org/current/musl -r /mnt base-system grub-x86_64-efi

Upon completion of the install, we set up our chroot jail, and chroot into our mounted filesystem:

# mount -t proc proc /mnt/proc
# mount -t sysfs sys /mnt/sys
# mount -o bind /dev /mnt/dev
# mount -t devpts pts /mnt/dev/pts
# cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/etc/
# cd /mnt
# chroot /mnt

In order to verify our install, we can have a look at the directory structure:

# ls -la

The output should look something akin to the following:

total 12
drwxr-xr-x 16 root root 4096 Jan 17 15:27 .
drwxr-xr-x  3 root root 4096 Jan 17 15:16 ..
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root    7 Jan 17 15:26 bin -> usr/bin
drwxr-xr-x  4 root root  127 Jan 17 15:37 boot
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root   17 Jan 17 15:26 dev
drwxr-xr-x 26 root root 4096 Jan 17 15:27 etc
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root    6 Jan 17 15:26 home
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root    7 Jan 17 15:26 lib -> usr/lib
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root    9 Jan 17 15:26 lib32 -> usr/lib32
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root    7 Jan 17 15:26 lib64 -> usr/lib
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root    6 Jan 17 15:26 media
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root    6 Jan 17 15:26 mnt
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root    6 Jan 17 15:26 opt
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root    6 Jan 17 15:26 proc
drwxr-x---  2 root root   26 Jan 17 15:39 root
drwxr-xr-x  3 root root   17 Jan 17 15:26 run
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root    8 Jan 17 15:26 sbin -> usr/sbin
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root    6 Jan 17 15:26 sys
drwxrwxrwt  2 root root    6 Jan 17 15:15 tmp
drwxr-xr-x 11 root root  123 Jan 17 15:26 usr
drwxr-xr-x 11 root root  150 Jan 17 15:26 var

While chrooted, we create the password for the root user, and set root access permissions:

# passwd root
# chown root:root /
# chmod 755 /

Create the hostname for the new install:

# echo <HOSTNAME> > /etc/hostname

Edit our rc.conf file, like so:

# vi /etc/rc.conf


# Set RTC to UTC or localtime.

# Set timezone, availables timezones at /usr/share/zoneinfo.

# Keymap to load, see loadkeys(8).

# Console font to load, see setfont(8).

# Console map to load, see setfont(8).

# Font unimap to load, see setfont(8).

# Kernel modules to load, delimited by blanks.

In order to edit our fstab file, we need to grab the UUIDs for our volumes:

# blkid

Which should return something akin to the following:

/dev/sda1: UUID="C071-6887" TYPE="vfat" PARTLABEL="EFI" PARTUUID="b35386b0-30d8-4d9d-9bc1-b02e78a2c708"
/dev/sda2: UUID="d7d2ddae-cb94-4aea-bc4f-4784d6b3cc8e" TYPE="xfs" PARTLABEL="GRUB" PARTUUID="824a24e5-5795-4a98-9977-1e534e480fa6"
/dev/sda3: UUID="cfb8be30-1866-44a6-bdf5-60ced2a454f4" PARTLABEL="swap" PARTUUID="e4f25f1c-f74b-487b-9413-0f43a1ac1a99"
/dev/sda4: UUID="97060d6a-039e-469f-b0aa-2fca2e33f464" TYPE="xfs" PARTLABEL="tmp" PARTUUID="12e852ce-79cc-4447-a8a0-d93c41b1967a"
/dev/sda5: UUID="4fb9395f-42c2-4b27-8545-1e9c1703c94d" TYPE="xfs" PARTLABEL="var" PARTUUID="77a281f8-7c0a-41d0-9a50-91104411bc9e"
/dev/sda6: UUID="dcdd0c5a-020b-4167-a10d-cb81d71e2ae6" TYPE="xfs" PARTLABEL="Void" PARTUUID="79303ba0-9be9-4905-a382-e90ff908a43f"
/dev/sda7: UUID="4a24a9e9-3c04-4aa5-826b-da2122347094" TYPE="xfs" PARTLABEL="The Big Box" PARTUUID="3ffd3dd1-0d69-4839-b1ee-320f9d7162c6"

Once we have our UUIDs , we edit our fstab file, like so (with noatime if we are installing to an SSD):

# vi /etc/fstab

# See fstab(5).
# <file system> <dir>   <type>  <options>               <dump>  <pass>
#tmpfs           /tmp    tmpfs   defaults,nosuid,nodev   0       0t
UUID=dcdd0c5a-020b-4167-a10d-cb81d71e2ae6 / xfs rw,noatime,discard 0 1
UUID=d7d2ddae-cb94-4aea-bc4f-4784d6b3cc8e /boot xfs rw,noatime,discard 0 2
UUID=C071-6887 /boot/efi vfat rw,noatime,discard 0 2
UUID=97060d6a-039e-469f-b0aa-2fca2e33f464 /tmp xfs rw,noatime,discard,nosuid,nodev 0 2
UUID=4fb9395f-42c2-4b27-8545-1e9c1703c94d /var xfs rw,noatime,discard,nosuid,nodev 0 2
UUID=4a24a9e9-3c04-4aa5-826b-da2122347094 /home xfs rw,noatime,discard 0 2
UUID=cfb8be30-1866-44a6-bdf5-60ced2a454f4 swap swap rw,noatime,discard 0 0

Next, we need to set our locale. We do this by uncommenting our locale in /etc/default/libc-locales:

# vi /etc/default/libc-locales
#en_NZ ISO-8859-1
#en_PH.UTF-8 UTF-8
#en_PH ISO-8859-1
#en_SG.UTF-8 UTF-8
#en_SG ISO-8859-1

en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8

#en_US ISO-8859-1
#en_ZA.UTF-8 UTF-8
#en_ZA ISO-8859-1
#en_ZM UTF-8
#en_ZW.UTF-8 UTF-8
#en_ZW ISO-8859-1
#es_AR.UTF-8 UTF-8
#es_AR ISO-8859-1
#es_BO.UTF-8 UTF-8
#es_BO ISO-8859-1
#es_CL.UTF-8 UTF-8
#es_CL ISO-8859-1
#es_CO.UTF-8 UTF-8
#es_CO ISO-8859-1
#es_CR.UTF-8 UTF-8
#es_CR ISO-8859-1
#es_CU UTF-8

Once we've established our locale, we're ready to configure:

# xbps-reconfigure -f glibc-locales

We now edit our dracut.conf file, enabling hostonly and adding support for our /tmp directory:

# vi /etc/dracut.conf

# PUT YOUR CONFIG HERE OR IN separate files named *.conf
# in /etc/dracut.conf.d
# SEE man dracut.conf(5)

# Sample dracut config file


# Exact list of dracut modules to use.  Modules not listed here are not going
# to be included.  If you only want to add some optional modules use
# add_dracutmodules option instead.

# dracut modules to omit

# dracut modules to add to the default

# additional kernel modules to the default

# list of kernel filesystem modules to be included in the generic initramfs

# build initrd only to boot current hardware

# install local /etc/mdadm.conf

# install local /etc/lvm/lvm.conf

# A list of fsck tools to install. If it's not specified, module's hardcoded
# default is used, currently: "umount mount /sbin/fsck* xfs_db xfs_check
# xfs_repair e2fsck jfs_fsck reiserfsck btrfsck". The installation is
# opportunistic, so non-existing tools are just ignored.

# inhibit installation of any fsck tools

# mount / and /usr read-only by default

# set the directory for temporary files
# default: /var/tmp

We need to have a look at /lib/modules to get our Linux kernel version

# cd /lib/modules
# ls -la

Which should return something akin to:

drwxr-xr-x  3 root root   21 Jan 31 15:22 .
drwxr-xr-x 23 root root 8192 Jan 31 15:22 ..
drwxr-xr-x  3 root root 4096 Jan 31 15:22 4.0.4_1

Once dracut.conf has been edited, we can update dracut:

# dracut --force --hostonly --kver 4.0.4_1

Final touches

We are now ready to install GRUB and configure our install:

# grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot/efi --bootloader-id=void_grub --boot-directory=/boot --recheck --debug
# xbps-reconfigure -f linux4.0

Upon successful install and configure, we can exit both chroot and sudo, unmount our filesystem, and boot into our new Void install.

$ exit
# exit
# sudo umount -R /mnt
# sudo reboot

Congratulations, you've entered the void!


If GRUB cannot be found (a note about UEFI)

Void's Grub install, by default, installs the *.efi file as /boot/efi/EFI/GRUB/grubx64.efi. However, some UEFI implementations look for the file by a different name, and in a different subdirectory.

Copy grubx64.efi to another location, expected by some implementations:

mkdir /boot/efi/EFI/BOOT
cp -p /boot/efi/EFI/GRUB/grubx64.efi /boot/efi/EFI/BOOT/BOOTX64.efi

Alternatively, some implementations are case-sensitive, and seek the same file, with a lower-case name:

mkdir /boot/efi/EFI/BOOT
cp -p /boot/efi/EFI/GRUB/grubx64.efi /boot/efi/EFI/BOOT/bootx64.efi

If GRUB is failing to install and (or) dracut is failing to build ramdisk

If you are getting dracut failures when building initial ramdisk (like these):

dracut-install: Environment DESTROOTDIR or argument -D is set to '/tmp/dracut.MBFVRU/initramfs': No such file or directory

Or if grub-install fails like this:

Installing for x86_64-efi platform.
grub-install: error: failed to get canonical path of `/boot/grub'.

at final stages of this guide, it means, that you probably forgot to mount /proc and (or) /sys filesystems into your chroot. Exit chroot, mount these filesystems and try again. This can sometimes happen, especially if you are assembling chroot by hand.

Ramdisk should now build and Grub should install.