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Difference between revisions of "Network Configuration"

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== Static IP ==
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As this wiki is deprecated, and will soon disappear, please refer to [https://docs.voidlinux.org/config/network/index.html the "Network" section of the Void Handbook].
 
 
Static IP configuration can either be done through <code>dhcpcd</code> and its configuration file {{path|/etc/dhcpcd.conf}}, or iproute commands in {{path|/etc/rc.local}} (see below). If an ethernet interface was configured at the installer, '''dhcpcd.conf''' should look as follows:
 
 
 
# Static IP configuration.
 
interface eth0
 
static ip_address=192.168.1.2
 
static routers=192.168.1.1
 
static domain_name_servers=8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4
 
 
 
The '''dhcpcd''' service must be enabled in the '''default''' runlevel:
 
 
 
# ln -s /etc/sv/dhcpcd /var/service/
 
 
 
A simpler solution without the need of running the '''dhcpcd''' daemon would be to setup the network interface in {{path|/etc/rc.local}} via commands from the {{pkg|iproute2}} package:
 
 
 
# Static IP configuration via iproute
 
ip link set dev eth0 up
 
ip addr add 192.168.1.2/24 brd + dev eth0
 
ip route add default via 192.168.1.1
 
 
 
== Dynamic IP (DHCP) ==
 
 
 
This is handled by the {{pkg|dhcpcd}} package and its service. To acquire a lease for any known interface, simply enable the <code>dhcpcd</code> system service:
 
 
 
# ln -s /etc/sv/dhcpcd /var/service/
 
 
 
=== DHCP per interface ===
 
 
 
The default <code>dhcpcd</code> runit service works in all available network interfaces, but sometimes only a single interface needs to be setup, in that case we'll make another <code>service</code> with some modifications:
 
 
 
<pre># mkdir -p /etc/sv/dhcpcd-eth0
 
# vi /etc/sv/dhcpcd-eth0/run</pre>
 
<pre>      #!/bin/sh
 
      exec dhcpcd -B eth0</pre>
 
<pre># chmod 755 /etc/sv/dhcpcd-eth0/run
 
# ln -s /run/runit/supervise.dhcpcd-eth0  /etc/sv/dhcpcd-eth0/supervise</pre>
 
 
 
This '''new''' runit service will only work for the <code>eth0</code> device. Now you just need to symlink it to the '''current''' runlevel to enable and start it:
 
 
 
# ln -s /etc/sv/dhcpcd-eth0 /var/service/
 
 
 
You can find available network devices by executing
 
 
 
$ ip link
 
 
 
== Desktop Network Daemons (NetworkManager, wicd and connman) ==
 
 
 
These applications conflict with the methods mentioned above so before using <code>NetworkManager</code>, <code>wicd</code> or <code>conmman</code> make sure that <code>dhcpcd</code> and <code>wpa_supplicant</code> services are stopped and disabled:
 
 
 
# rm -f /var/service/<foo>
 
 
 
or for the per interface service; make sure that none of these services are started by default.
 
 
 
== Wireless (default) ==
 
 
 
Wireless connections are handled by the {{pkg|wpa_supplicant}} package; it can handle multiple kinds of security against the APs: none, WEP, WPA-PSK (WPA Personal), WPA-EAP (WPA Enterprise) and more.
 
 
 
Copy the <code>wpa_supplicant.conf</code> file to match your network device:
 
 
 
$ cp /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant-<device>.conf
 
 
 
=== Enabling a wireless interface ===
 
 
 
First you need to enable a wireless interface through which to connect to your wireless network.
 
To view the available networks interfaces on your computer, run:
 
 
 
$ sudo ip link show
 
 
 
This will give you a list of all available interfaces. Wireless interface should be named "wlp2s0" by default, but check the command's output to corroborate this either way, just in case.
 
 
 
To enable this interface, run:  
 
 
 
$ sudo ip link set up <interface_name>
 
 
 
=== WEP encryption ===
 
 
 
For WEP encrypted wireless networks, just edit {{path|/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant-<device>.conf}} and add the following lines:
 
 
 
<pre># Example default configuration file for wpa_supplicant.conf(5).
 
ctrl_interface=/run/wpa_supplicant
 
ctrl_interface_group=wheel
 
eapol_version=1
 
ap_scan=1
 
fast_reauth=1
 
# Add your networks here.
 
network={
 
    ssid="MYSSID"
 
    key_mgmt=NONE
 
    wep_key0="YOUR AP WEP KEY"
 
    wep_tx_keyidx=0
 
    auth_alg=SHARED
 
}</pre>
 
 
 
=== WPA-PSK encryption (WPA Personal) ===
 
 
 
For <code>WPA-PSK</code> encrypted networks, we must generate the <code>pre shared key</code> with {{man|8|wpa_passphrase}}. To do this, run the following command:
 
 
 
$ wpa_passphrase <MYSSID> <key>
 
 
 
Then, just append the resulting output from the above command to {{path|/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant-<device_name>.conf}}:
 
 
 
<pre># Example default configuration file for wpa_supplicant.conf(5).
 
ctrl_interface=/run/wpa_supplicant
 
ctrl_interface_group=wheel
 
eapol_version=1
 
ap_scan=1
 
fast_reauth=1
 
# Add here your networks.
 
network={
 
    ssid="MYSSID"
 
    #psk="YOUR AP KEY"
 
    psk=a8c34100ab4e5afac33cad7184d45a29ee0079001577d579bec6b74e4d7b5ac8
 
}</pre>
 
 
 
This configuration file will be used in the following steps to start <code>wpa_supplicant</code>.
 
 
 
=== Starting <code>wpa_supplicant</code> through <code>dhcpcd</code> hooks===
 
 
 
You can enable the <code>dhcpcd</code> service, which has a hook to start wpa_supplicant, and use the {{man|8|wpa_cli}} command to see details of this AP connection.
 
 
 
Check which version you are using with
 
 
 
$ dhcpcd --version
 
 
 
If you're using and old version you may need to enable the <code>wpa_supplicant</code> hook:
 
 
 
$ sudo ln -s /usr/share/dhcpcd/hooks/10-wpa_supplicant /usr/libexec/dhcpcd-hooks
 
 
 
{{Note|Not sure if the following driver option in dhcpcd works anymore. Add -Dwext to your command if you find you have issues.
 
 
 
<pre>$ sudo wpa_supplicant -B -i<interface_name> -c<path/to/configuration/file> -Dwext</pre>}}
 
 
 
If you happen to need a special driver (option -D) you can edit {{path|/etc/dhcpcd.conf}} and add a line like <code>env wpa_supplicant_driver=wext</code>.
 
 
 
After enabling this hook, don't forget to restart <code>dhcpcd</code>:
 
 
 
$ sudo sv restart dhcpcd
 
 
 
If <code>wpa_supplicant</code> is still not starting after this, try starting it from the command line with
 
 
 
$ sudo wpa_supplicant -i <device> -c /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant-<device>.conf
 
 
 
to see if you get any errors.
 
 
 
=== Starting <code>wpa_supplicant</code> manually ===
 
 
 
Alternatively, you can start wpa_supplicant manually, and run dhcpcd afterwards on your interface to establish the connection without configuring the dhcpcd hook:
 
 
 
$ sudo wpa_supplicant -B -i <interface_name> -c <path/to/configuration/file>
 
$ sudo dhcpcd <interface_name>
 
 
 
Test the connection afterwards with:
 
 
$ ping <arbitrary website>
 
 
 
== Wireless (NetworkManager) ==
 
 
 
Install required packages:
 
 
 
# xbps-install NetworkManager network-manager-applet gnome-icon-theme inetutils-ifconfig gnome-keyring
 
 
 
If you want messages about the state:
 
 
 
# xbps-install xfce4-notifyd
 
 
 
Disable dhcpcd and wpa_supplicant services:
 
 
 
# rm -fr /var/service/dhcpcd
 
# rm -fr /var/service/wpa_supplicant
 
 
 
Enable and start new services:
 
 
 
# ln -s /etc/sv/NetworkManager /var/service
 
# ln -s /etc/sv/dbus /var/service
 
 
 
Start <code>nm-applet</code> in the desktop manager start file:
 
 
 
nm-applet &
 
 
 
The applet should show up in the system tray. If your desktop manager doesn't have one, look for {{pkg|stalonetray}} or {{pkg|trayer-srg}}, which are available in Void Linux.
 
 
 
=== Captive Portal Detection ===
 
 
 
NetworkManager supports connectivity detection in captive portals. In Void Linux this is off by default. You can enable it by creating this file:
 
 
 
{{hc|File: /etc/NetworkManager/conf.d/10-connectivity.conf|
 
[connectivity]
 
uri&#61;http://nmcheck.gnome.org/check_network_status.txt
 
response&#61;NetworkManager is online
 
interval&#61;300
 
}}
 
 
 
Then restart the NetworkManager:
 
 
 
# sv restart NetworkManager
 
 
 
== Connecting to hotel / restaurant / airport hotspots via the command line ==
 
 
 
Oftentimes, wifi hotspots in various public places don't have an accompanying WPA / WEP key. They require you to connect to their ESSID, obtain an IP address, and subsequently log in via a web interface of some sort. Here are two ways that will allow you to log into these networks.
 
 
 
=== Method 1: one-time connection ===
 
 
 
If you don't foresee yourself connecting to this network more than once, the following method is an effective way to connect to the establishment's network temporarily:
 
 
 
==== Step 1: stop the current dhcpcd service if it's running ====
 
 
 
$ sudo sv stop dhcpcd
 
 
 
==== Step 2: bring up your wireless NIC ====
 
 
 
$ sudo ip link set <device> up
 
 
 
Replace <device> with the name assigned to your wireless card. If you don't know its name, you can use the <code>ip a</code> or <code>ip link</code> commands.
 
 
 
==== Step 3: connect to the ESSID of the establishment ====
 
 
 
$ sudo iw dev <device> connect -w "AwesomeHotel"
 
 
 
The <code>-w</code> option waits until the connection either succeeds or an error occurs.
 
 
 
==== Step 4: obtain an IP address from the network ====
 
 
 
$ sudo dhcpcd <device>
 
 
 
You should now be able to fire up your favourite web browser and log into the network normally.
 
 
 
=== Method 2: saving the connection ===
 
 
 
If you're staying at a hotel for a few days, you might want to save the connection details for the duration of your stay. This method uses the {{man|8|wpa_cli}} command to store the ESSID of the hotel in the {{path|/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant-<device>.conf}} file. This assumes that you have the <code>wpa_supplicant</code> service running. This won't work if the service isn't up. Once connected, the <code>dhcpcd</code> service will obtain an IP from the network if it too is running.
 
 
 
==== Step 1: start wpa_cli in interactive mode ====
 
 
 
$ sudo wpa_cli
 
 
 
At this point, <code>wpa_cli</code> will tell you which interface it's working on and greet you with a <code>></code> prompt. If you want to specify the interface, simply include its name with the <code>-i</code> switch when starting <code>wpa_cli</code>:
 
 
 
$ sudo wpa_cli -i <device>
 
 
 
You might also see a bunch of unsolicited messages fly by as you move on to step 2.
 
 
 
==== Step 2: connect to the network and save the ESSID ====
 
 
 
> add_network
 
12
 
> set_network 12 ssid "The_hotel_SSID"
 
> set_network 12 key_mgmt NONE
 
> enable_network 12
 
> save_config
 
> quit
 
 
 
Enjoy your stay!
 
 
 
== See also ==
 
* {{man|8|dhcpcd}}, {{man|8|dhcpcd-run-hooks}}
 
 
 
[[Category:Guides]]
 

Latest revision as of 14:33, 13 June 2020

As this wiki is deprecated, and will soon disappear, please refer to the "Network" section of the Void Handbook.